KN Hemanth Kumar | Chief Manager - Energy Efficient Motors & Transformers, International Copper Association India
What growth did we see in the last five years in the motor segment? Could you throw some light on the demand projections for next three years?
The estimated size of Indian Rotating Machines industry is Rs 6,400 crore. Followed by 3-phase induction motors at Rs 2,300 crore and in capacity or mege watt (MW) terms it is 16,000 MW - about 12,500 MW motors manufactured in India and 3,500 MW of imports.
The Indian motor industry has seen a flat growth (in MW) for last 3-5 years and is expected to grow at the rate of 5 per cent compounded annual growth rate or CAGR (in MW) till 2021. This is due to the various initiatives by the government like ´Make in India´, ´Electricity for All´, Smart Cities etc. This also includes initiatives in line with India´s commitment to global climate change agreement to achieve the Paris Summit/COP21 target.
Recently the market has become conscious of energy efficiency. How did the motor market react to this move?
In India, over the last couple of years, the implementation of energy efficient motors has improved. It is true that there was confusion over the dual standards that were to be followed i.e. IS 325 & IS 12615 (IE2 & IE3). These two standards had two different testing methods, leading to a situation where a higher efficient motor was labelled with lower efficiency than a low efficiency motor. Manufacturers had a hard time explaining this to the industrial end-users. Finally, in July 2014, IS 325 standard was abolished and the prevailing Indian Standard is IS12615 (for S1 duty motors) & IS/IEC 60034-1 (for all duty motors except S1 duty). Both IS 12615 & IS/IEC 60034-1 standards refer to common test methods as per IS 15999:2011 (PART 2 Method of Tests, Section 1 Standard Methods for Determining Losses and Efficiency from Tests).
The factors that create endurance for the penetration of high efficiency motors in the country are the following:
Creating awareness among the buyers regarding the potential for energy and cost savings by using more efficient motors within energy-efficient motor driven systems (EMDS).
Lifecycle cost for motors: purchasing decisions, buying the unit with the lowest lifetime cost rather than the one with the lowest purchase price.
The fact that motors are often integrated into equipment produced by OEMs before sale to the final end-user.
Could you elaborate on factors that can improve efficiency in motors further?
The electrical efficiency of motors can be improved by replacing the standard aluminium electrical conductor in the motor rotor with copper, which has a much higher electrical conductivity. Until recently, die-cast motor rotors were produced only from aluminium, while researchers worked on solving technological issues with copper pressure die-casting. Today, copper pressure die-casting is a proven technology and thousands of die-cast copper motor rotors are produced annually for motor applications where energy savings are the prime design objectives. The use of copper in place of aluminium for conductor bars and end rings of induction motor rotors results in improvements in motor energy efficiency due to a significant reduction in IR losses. It is now proved that the motors with copper rotors yield overall rotor loss reductions between 15 to 20% compared to aluminium.
The advantages of motors with copper motor rotors on an equivalent basis with aluminium include the following:
i)They generate less heat and thus reduce thermal stress, including those on insulation, which enable them to operate longer.
ii) The increased electrical conductivity of the copper rotor material plus the smaller volume of steel enables the manufactures to cut down on the length of the motors.
iii) These motors have 1 - 5% higher energy efficiency.
iv) The overall manufacturing cost of these motors is low.
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